Text, graphic and photo: Heinz Birkenheuer

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2. Military

2. 1 The Centurion Headquarters

There were 60 Centurion buildings in the Novaesium Military Camp of approximately the same size, of an average area of 250 mē. They were converted into rooms according to the individual requirements, and were located at the head of the barrack blocks. They provided a narrowed entrance and exit, which could be easily overseen and controlled. The difference to the adjacent barrack rooms was the room-depths of 12 m and an inner atrium, that could be used as an internal assembling room. *12)

Centurion Headquarters - Longitudinal Section and Ground Plan
Graphic: Heinz Birkenheuer

A headquarter was divided into the private area of the CENTURIO and one room respectively for his substitute (OPTIO), the carrier of the signal (SIGNIFER), the cornist (CORNICE) and the commander (TESSERARIUS). Assigned servants lived in the tools- and equipment storage rooms. A large office consisting of several subdivisions was located in the front area.

Reconstruktion of the infantry haedquarter in the Legionary Camp of Novaesium

Model and photo: Heinz Birkenheuer

2.2 The Barracks of the Roman Infantry

The barracks of the Roman infantry The barrack blocks of the Roman Infantry troops were arranged in a circle around the centre of the camp. This circle got exits towards the defensive wall in order to enable the legionaries to take the shortest way possible from their accommodation to the according part of the fortification. Respectively two CENTURIOS built one MANIPEL, which was located on an INSOLA.

Insola with on block of the infantery barracks

Drawing: Constantin Koenen

Model of the Infantery-Barracks
Model: Heinz Birkenheuer u. L. Kirchmeyer
Photo: H. Birkenheuer

The barracks of the last, respectively second stonework phase used to be framework constructions based on stone grounds. Walls used to be made from pre-manufactured frames including the wickerwork and charged with a mixture of straw and clay. Roofs were already covered with tiles at this time.

Cross-section through different Barracks

Graphic: Heinz Birkenheuer

The blocks were small, rectangular and detached buildings, arranged in pairs that were exactly facing each other across one minor street. The garrisons used approximately one third of the INSOLA space. There was a small, narrowed exit/entrance from the major street. The end of the minor street between the blocks was closed, which resulted in easy supervision of the entire complex. This complex provided room for 160 legionaries. The rectangular barrack buildings were divided into CONTUBERNIA, each comprising a front and rear room and providing space for eight soldiers, probably for storage of arms and sleeping respectively. Depth of these two rooms used to be approx. 12 m, including a covered walkway in front. The particularly small sleeping room of approx. 20 mē was used at it's best, due to an integrated gallery and covered ditches in the floor. There was no private space at all for the single soldier. Rooms located at the end of each barrack block would have been used commonly as latrines. *14) The garrisons located at the front side of the barrack blocks had no covered walkways in front and differentiated themselves from the adjacent soldier's rooms by an open atrium, which was also used as an internal assembling room.

* 12) Constantin Koenen - Beschreibung von Novaesium, Bonner Jahrbuch 111-112/ S. 141

* 13) Peter Connolly- The Roman Fort / S. 13
* 14) Constantin Koenen - Beschreibung von Novaesium, Bonner Jahrbuch 111-112 / S. 142